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Evaluating both the actual decision and the decision-making process Managers have to vary their approach to decision making, depending on the particular situation and person or people involved. The above steps are not a fixed procedure, however; they are more a process, a system, or an approach.
They force one to realize that there are usually alternatives and that one should not be pressured into making a quick decision without looking at the implications.
This is especially true in the case of nonprogrammed decisions complex and novel decisions as contrasted to programmed decisions those that are repetitive and routine. One of the most difficult steps in the decision-making process is to develop the various alternatives.
For example, if one is involved in planning a workshop, one of the most crucial decisions is the time, format, and location of the workshop.
In this case, one's experience as well as one's understanding of the clientele group greatly influence the selecting of alternatives. Often decision trees can help a manager make a series of decisions involving uncertain events.
A decision tree is a device that displays graphically the various actions that a manager can take and shows how those actions will relate to the attainment of future events. Each branch represents an alternative course of action.
To make a decision tree it is necessary to: In extension, the decision-making process is often a group process. Consequently, the manager must apply principles of democratic decision making since those involved in the decision-making process will feel an interest in the results of the process.
In such a case, the manager becomes more of a coach, knowing the mission, objectives, and the process, but involving those players who must help in actually achieving the goal.
The effective manager thus perceives himself or herself as the controller of the decision-making process rather than as the maker of the organization's or agency's decision. As Drucker has pointed out, "The most common source of mistakes in management decision-making is the emphasis on finding the right answer rather than the right question.
It is not enough to find the right answer; more important and more difficult is to make effective the course of action decided upon.
Management is not concerned with knowledge for its own sake; it is concerned with performance. Organizing is the process of establishing formal relationships among people and resources in order to reach specific goals and objectives. The process, according to Marshallis based on five organizing principles: The organizing process involves five steps: In any organizing effort, managers must choose an appropriate structure.
Organizational structure is represented primarily by an organizational chart.Study a Diploma in Strategic Management and Leadership (CMI Level 7) at Sunderland College. Apply online now!
Study a Diploma in Strategic Management and Leadership (CMI Level 7) at Sunderland College. Apply online now! Apply for this course Request Details View Prospectus Print Factsheet.
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To address the following three key strategic issues and questions.